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12ASI1.3 Use technology and mathematics to improve investigations and communications. A variety of technologies, such as hand tools, measuring instruments, and calculators, should be an integral component of scientific investigations. The use of computers for the collection, analysis, and display of data is also a part of this standard. Mathematics plays an essential role in all aspects of an inquiry. For example, measurement is used for posing questions, formulas are used for developing explanations, and charts and graphs are used for communicating results.
Concepts of Earth Science
A student should understand and be able to apply the concepts, processes, theories, models, evidence, and systems of earth and space sciences.
A student who meets the content standard should:
1) develop an understanding of the origins, ongoing processes, and forces that shape
the structure, composition, and physical history of the Earth.
National Snow and Ice Data Center. (2010). View NSIDC Data on Virtual Globes:
Google Earth. Retrieved July 13, 2010. http://nsidc.org/data/virtual_globes/
Romanovsky, V., Smith, S., Christiansen, H. (2010). Permafrost thermal state in the polar
northern hemisphere during the International Polar Year 2007-2009: a synthesis.
Permafrost and Periglacial Processes. 21, 106-116.
The National Snow and Ice Data Center website, NSIDC “supports research into our world's frozen realms: the snow, ice, glacier, frozen ground, and climate interactions that make up Earth's cryosphere.” Data is compiled and archived from satellites and from the field.
NSIDC has developed curriculum about permafrost and frozen ground,
“All About Frozen Ground.”
* | Permafrost - Polygons, Pingos and Thermokarst, Oh My!
* | Permafrost - Permafrost
* | Weather Observation -Weather Versus Climate
| * Permafrost - Introduction to Permafrost
| * Climate Change - Global Climate Change